Asthma: Immunopathology

Bronchial asthma is an immune-mediated disorder characterised by reversible airway inflammation, mucous secretion, and variable flow of air obstructing with airway hyper responsiveness. Allergen exposure leads to the activation of various cells of the system, of those dendritic cells and Th2 lymphocytes are of paramount importance. Although the epithelium was initially considered to function singly as a physical barrier, it is currently noticeable that it plays a central role in the Th2-cell sensitization process due to its potentiality to activate dendritic cells. Mast cells and eosinophil were initially believed to play a key role in driving the airway inflammation associated with asthma, new data imply that T helper cells are critical. It has been shown that allergic asthma is associated with increased TH2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) cytokine production that causes activation of eosinophils and T-cells and production of chemokine by pulmonary fibroblasts.

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